From Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, http://www.saferemr.com:
Epidemiological investigation of risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing
Zhou LY, Zhang HX, Lan YL, Li Y, Liang Y, Yu L, Ma YM, Jia CW, Wang SY.
Epidemiological investigation of risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion [i.e., miscarriages] in Beijing.
METHODS: A total of 34,417 cases of pregnant women were participated in the survey from January 2000 to December 2013. A questionnaire was informed to each woman. The content of questionnaire includes four parts: general condition, obstetrical history, past history and family history, and living environment and habits. The mental condition was evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS).
RESULTS: A total of 32,296 questionnaires were collected. The spontaneous abortion rate in the total sample was 3.0%. There was no significant difference between the normal pregnancy group and spontaneous abortion group in terms of general condition, obstetrical and past history (P>0.05).
Significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of decoration during pregnancy, keeping pets, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence, drinking during pregnancy, having a cold during pregnancy and SAS (P<0.05). Having a cold during pregnancy, decoration during pregnancy, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence, keeping pets and high SAS were determined the independent risk factors of spontaneous abortion by Logistic regression analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Having a cold during pregnancy, decoration, keeping pets, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence and high SAS are the independent risk factors of spontaneous abortion in Beijing.
Radiation source might result in DNA damage in embryos. The radiation of mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence is harmless for normal population, but may still have adverse effect on the vulnerable chromosome structure of embryos. Zareen, et al (7) put the mobile phone in the middle of the incubator to observe the effect of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on chick embryo. After 10–15 days, chick embryos in the exposure group had growth retardation. Pulse current electromagnetic field may injure human DNA, manifest as increased micronucleus rate of lymphocyte. The nursing personnel with X-ray exposure history had a SA rate twice of normal population’s. (8) For 969 pregnant women with the gestation less than 10 weeks, 24-h monitors were worn to measure the electromagnetic radiation of all sources they contacted. In the comparison of pregnancy outcomes, it was found that the abortion risk of the pregnant women was increased with the increase of electromagnetic radiation exposure. The pregnant women with high intensity of electromagnetic radiation exposure (16 mG) had significantly increased risk (RR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) than those with low intensity of electromagnetic radiation exposure (<16 mG). In our study, it was found that near mobile base communication station within 100 m around the residence was significantly related to early SA. Therefore, the pregnant women are suggested to stay away from corresponding radiation source.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety